Medieval World /
Medieval Art & Architecture
Pub Date: 15 Jan 2024
Imprint: Windgather Press
Throughout history, rivers have been a hub for human settlement and have long been a key part of local livelihoods, history, and culture, as well as still playing a present-day role in providing services and leisure to people who live around them. It is no coincidence that all four of the earliest human civilizations were formed on great rivers: the Nile, Euphrates, Indus, and Yellow rivers all saw great human aggregation along them. The most ancient, and vital architectural structures linked to the use of rivers are bridges.
There are a wide range of medieval bridge structures, some very simple in their construction, to amazing triumphs of design and engineering comparable with the great churches of the period. They stand today as proof of the great importance of transport networks in the Middle Ages and of the size and sophistication of the medieval economy. These bridges were built in some of the most difficult places, across broad flood plains, deep tidal waters, and steep upland valleys, and they withstood all but the most catastrophic floods. Yet their beauty, from simplistic to ornate, remains for us to appreciate.
Medieval Bridges of Middle England has been organized geographically into tours and covers the governmental regions of East of England, East Midlands, and West Midlands. There are 62 bridges included and beautiful full color photographs of each bridge are included. A brief history is incorporated with each bridge. Additionally, information about the construction, materials used, and unique features are related, as well as historically relevant documents and images. Directions to each bridge and local attractions are also given.
There are literally hundreds of bridges in England that meet the criteria for inclusion in this roll of honor for senior bridges. They vary vastly in size, style, and materials. Most are stone and a very few are brick. We have lost many of our older bridges to the ravages of time and the modern practice of culvertisation and urban development. A few of our older bridges remain though, and their beauty and pivotal role in our history is starting to be recognized.
Pub Date: 18 Dec 2019
Imprint: Sidestone Press
Pub Date: 18 Dec 2019
Imprint: Sidestone Press
In ganz Europa bestimmten Burgen im hohen und späten Mittelalter die Herrschaftspraxis. Doch während dies in zahlreichen Regionen hinreichend Beachtung findet, wurde das südliche Jütland bislang weder von der Regionalgeschichts- noch von der Burgenforschung als Burgenlandschaft wahrgenommen. Dabei vermitteln Ortsnamen wie Sønderborg, Wallanlagen wie etwa in Tørning und nicht zuletzt Schlossanlagen wie Gottorf, dessen Ursprung auf eine mittelalterliche Burg zurückgeht, noch heute einen lebhaften Eindruck von der einstigen Bedeutung derartiger Anlagen.
Im Rahmen seines von 2014 bis 2018 an der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel durchgeführten Forschungsvorhabens beschäftigte sich der Verfasser umfassend mit diesem Phänomen, und legt mit diesem Buch nun erstmals eine wissenschaftliche Studie zu den bislang kaum beachteten Burgen zwischen Eider und Kongeå vor. Auf einer Mikroebene werden Informationen zu den einzelnen Anlagen beiderseits der deutsch-dänischen Grenze aus verschiedenen Fachdisziplinen wie der Geschichtswissenschaft und Mittelalterarchäologie gesammelt, kritisch evaluiert und miteinander in Verbindung gesetzt. Die einzelnen Fallbeispiele werden anschließend auf einer Makroebene in ihren räumlichen und historischen Kontexten verortet. Die Arbeit orientiert sich dabei an jüngeren Tendenzen der internationalen Burgenforschung, welche die soziale Komplexität, landschaftliche Einbettung und funktionale Vielfalt der Burgen betonen. Insbesondere durch eine innovative Strukturierung in verschiedene Funktionstypen ergeben sich vollkommen neue methodische Zugänge zu den Burgen dieses Raumes.
Das Werk bildet insgesamt sieben Evolutionsphasen dieser historischen Burgenlandschaft ab, von den einfachen Anfängen des 12. Jahrhunderts bis zu den herrschaftlich komplexen und vielfältigen Strukturen des 15. Jahrhunderts. Es wird deutlich, dass zwar jede der insgesamt 58 nachweisbaren Burgen für sich betrachtet werden muss, diese jedoch nur in ihren historischen und landschaftlichen Bezügen sinnvoll gedeutet werden können. Somit versteht sich der Band als wichtiger Beitrag für ein differenzierteres Verständnis dieses vielschichtigen Herrschaftsraumes, der zugleich einen Referenzrahmen für weitere Untersuchungen bietet und die Region als Burgenlandschaft in der überregionalen Forschung platziert.
Castles had a lasting influence on the practice of reign during the high and late Middle Ages throughout Europe. While this has received considerable attention for many regions, southern Jutland has not yet been perceived as a castle landscape neither by regional historians nor by castle research, although toponyms such as Sønderborg, ramparts like Tørning and palaces such as Gottorf, whose origin goes back to a medieval castle, still provides a vivid impression of the once important role played by such castles.
From 2014 to 2018, the author conducted a research project at Kiel University on this phenomenon. With this book, he now presents the first comprehensive study of the castles between Eider and Kongeå, which have received little attention so far. On a micro-level, information on the individual structures on both sides of the German-Danish border from various disciplines such as history and medieval archaeology is compiled, critically evaluated and interconnected. The individual case studies are then placed in their spatial and historical contexts on a micro-level. The work is primarily inspired by the latest trends in international castle research, which emphasize the social complexity, landscape embedding and functional diversity of castles. Especially an innovative classification into different function types allows for completely new methodological approaches to the castles of this region.
The book illustrates a total of seven evolutionary phases of this historical castle landscape, from the humble beginnings of the 12th century to the manorially complex and diverse structures of the 15th century. While it is evident that each of these 58 verifiable castles must be examined individually, they can only be meaningfully understood within their historical and landscape contexts. The volume thus sees itself as an important contribution to a more differentiated understanding of this complex territory, providing a frame of reference for further investigations and establishing the region as a castle landscape in supra-regional research.
Pub Date: 30 Sep 2019
Imprint: Oxbow Books
Westminster Abbey contains the only surviving medieval Cosmatesque mosaics outside Italy. They comprise: the ‘Great Pavement’ in the sanctuary; the pavement around the shrine of Edward the Confessor; the saint’s tomb and shrine; Henry III’s tomb; the tomb of a royal child, and some other pieces. Surprisingly, the mosaics have never before received detailed recording and analysis, either individually or as an assemblage. This two-volume publication presents a holistic study of this outstanding group of monuments in their historical architectural and archaeological context.
The shrine of St Edward is a remarkable survival, having been dismantled at the Dissolution and re-erected (incorrectly) in 1557 under Queen Mary. Large areas of missing mosaic were replaced with plaster on to which mosaic designs were carefully painted. This 16th-century fictive mosaic is unique in Britain. Conservation of the sanctuary pavement was accompanied by full archaeological recording with every piece of mosaic decoration drawn and coloured by David Neal, phase plans have been prepared, and stone-by-stone examination undertaken, petrologically identifying and recording the locations of all the materials present. It has revealed that both the pavements and tombs include a range of exotic stone types. The Cosmati study has shed fresh light on every aspect of the unique series of monuments in Westminster Abbey; this work will fill a major lacuna in our knowledge of 13th-century English art of the first rank, and will command international interest.
Pub Date: 25 May 2019
Imprint: Oxbow Books
This study reconstructs twelfth-century sculptural and architectural finds, found during the restoration of the Perpendicular Great Cloister of Christ Church, Canterbury, as architectural screens constructed around 1173. It proposes that the screens provided monastic privacy and controlled pilgrimage to the Altar of the Sword's Point in the Martyrdom, the site of Archbishop Thomas Becket's murder in 1170.
Excavations in the 1990s discovered evidence of a twelfth-century tunnel leading to the Martyrdom under the crossing of the western transept. Construction would have required rebuilding the crossing stairs and the screens flanking the crossing. The roundels, portraying lions, devils, a 'pagan', Jews, and a personification of the synagogue, are reconstructed on the south side of the crossing as a screening wall framing the entrance to this tunnel. The quatrefoils with images of Old Testament prophets are reconstructed as a rood screen on the west side of the crossing. In the Martyrdom, a screen is proposed with perhaps the earliest known sculptural representation of Thomas Becket. The rood screen, located behind the Altar of the Holy Cross, would have provided a visual focus during Mass, monastic processions, and sermons, especially during Christmas and Holy Week. The row of prophets, pointing upwards at the Rood, would have functioned as the visual equivalent of the dialogue of the ‘Ordo prophetarum’ that predicted the Messiah as proof to Jews and other unbelievers of Christian redemption. The roundels, just around the corner on the south screening wall, can be interpreted as representing the unbelieving Other and forces of evil warning pilgrims to seek penance at the altar of the newly canonized St Thomas.
In addition to this new interpretation, a catalog raisonné and an account of the discovery of the finds offers material for future research that has been unavailable to previous studies. All the finds were photographed by the author as the restoration progressed;16 pieces of which have since been lost, making some of the unpublished photographs essential evidence of the archaeological record.
Pub Date: 29 Jun 2018
Imprint: Oxbow Books
This volume brings together an interesting range of papers discussing medieval buildings across Europe. They provide interesting insights to life in the medieval world in several understudied areas of Europe. The papers range from Croatia and Transylvania in the east, Scandinavia in the north and Britain in the west, providing insights into areas that are rarely discussed by books published in western Europe. There is comprehensive range in size and status of buildings, from the smallest, single-roomed house in Byzantine Serbia and rural homes in central Europe to churches in Sweden and monastic hospitals in England. Buildings of high status and low status are discussed, as well as those of a secular and ecclesiastic nature. Materials and craftspeople are considered through a study of brick makers and their identifying marks. This volume aims to open discussions about medieval buildings beyond simply architectural features and typologies, and furthers the discipline through this process. Buildings can reveal details of the lives of their occupants and therefore enrich our knowledge of life in medieval Europe.
Pub Date: 31 Aug 2016
Imprint: Oxbow Books
Art in England fills a void in the scholarship of both English and medieval art by offering the first single volume overview of artistic movements in Medieval and Early Renaissance England. Grounded in history and using the chronology of the reign of monarchs as a structure, it is contextual and comprehensive, revealing unobserved threads of continuity, patterns of intention and unique qualities that run through English art of the medieval millennium. By placing the English movement in a European context, this book brings to light many ingenious innovations that focused studies tend not to recognize and offers a fresh look at the movement as a whole. The media studied include architecture and related sculpture, both ecclesiastical and secular; tomb monuments; murals, panel paintings, altarpieces, and portraits; manuscript illuminations; textiles; and art by English artists and by foreign artists commissioned by English patrons.
Pub Date: 31 Dec 2015
Imprint: Oxbow Books
The twenty-five papers in this volume cover diverse aspects of the material culture of the late Roman, Byzantine and Medieval periods, with particular emphasis on the metalwork and enamel of these times. Individual papers include major reinterpretations of objects in the British Museum's Byzantine collections as well as essays devoted to the Museum's recent acquisitions in this field. The volume celebrates the retirement of David Buckton, for over twenty years the curator of the British Museum's Early Christian and Byzantine collections and the National Icon Collection.
Pub Date: 31 Jul 2015
Imprint: Guy Points
The aim of this book is to provide an informed introduction to the subjects so that the reader will be able to confidently recognise Anglo-Saxon church architectural features and Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Scandinavian stone sculpture.
The contents, including illustrations and photographs, all meticulously checked on site, are drawn from the author’s extensive research and travels over many years.
Especially useful is the gazetteer section offering a selection of 127 sites providing excellent examples of the features described.
Pub Date: 29 Jul 2014
Imprint: Oxbow Books
The aim of this lavishly illustrated book is to provide an in-depth study of the many medieval peasant houses still standing in Midland villages, and of their historical context. In particular, the combination of tree-ring and radiocarbon dating, detailed architectural study and documentary research illuminates both their nature and their status. The results are brought together to provide a new and detailed view of the medieval peasant house, resolving the contradiction between the archaeological and architectural evidence, and illustrating how its social organisation developed in the period before we have extensive documentary evidence for the use of space within the house.
Pub Date: 17 Oct 2013
Imprint: Paul Holberton Publishing
Accompanying a landmark exhibition at the Courtauld Gallery, this book examines the remarkable drawings made by Dürer as a young man from 1490 to 1495, especially those made during his journeyman years, or Wanderjahre – considered the final part of a craftsman’s training – and a second shorter trip which immediately followed and seems to have brought the artist to Italy. These trips form the framework for the book, which focuses on the young artist’s figure studies and has at its heart the Courtauld Gallery’s double-sided drawing of a Wise Virgin and Two studies of the artist’s left leg. This superbly ambitious work serves as a springboard to explore in depth the role of drawing at this stage of Dürer’s career. It allows us to address a series of crucial questions: how Dürer formed ‘his hand’, how he responded to artistic challenges presented by contemporary and earlier art (both on a stylistic and an iconographic level), how his pursuit of professional success was linked with the quest for an individual artistic identity, and how the strategy of recording his own creative achievements in drawings dovetails with his claim for a new status for the artist in his city.The scholarly and beautifully illustrated catalogue is introduced with five essays by distinguished experts. Stephanie Buck examines the documentary evidence and attempts to reconstruct the motivations and activities of Dürer’s travels as a young man. David Freedberg discusses Dürer’s obsessive observation and recording of himself in portraits and in studies of his limbs. These represent the first critical steps in the artist’s developing understanding of the body, and of the ways in which its movements could not just show emotion, but rouse the equivalent sense of torsion, tension and pathos in the bodies and minds of his viewers. Stephanie Porras looks at Dürer’s copies of drawings or prints circulating in Nuremberg workshops or acquired during the Wanderjahre, which were used as a means of seeking inspiration, of challenging himself to draw more sophisticated figures and dynamic compositions. Michael Roth asks the question of how the three strands of the art of the line – drawing, engraving and woodcut – structurally correspond in Dürer’s work and, consequently, how drawing merges with certain manual aspects of printing. A final essay presents new technical research on Dürer’s early drawings undertakencollaboratively in a number of leading collections of the artist’s work, and aims to enrich our understanding of the young Dürer’s approach to the medium of drawing.
Pub Date: 31 May 2013
Imprint: Oxbow Books
All Saints’ Church, Brixworth lies 7 miles north of Northampton. The core of the church is Anglo-Saxon and the research published here provides an unprecedented account of one of the most important buildings of its period surviving in England. The building of the main body of the church was towards the end of the 8th century, with a western tower, stair turret and polygonal apse added before the end of the 9th. Major modifications were made during the early and later medieval periods.
From the early 19th century the church attracted much antiquarian interest, especially by topographical draughtsmen, whose drawings are crucial to its understanding before major restoration. Reverend Charles Frederick Watkins (Vicar, 1832–1871) made a particular study of the church fabric and identified both surviving and demolished Anglo-Saxon structures. Restoration under his direction reversed most of the medieval changes he recognised within the standing fabric, leaving the church with much the same appearance as it has today.
The Brixworth Archaeological Research Committee, founded in 1972, embarked on an in-depth archaeological and historical study of All Saints’. Limited excavation revealed evidence for the former extent of the cemetery and examined remains of the early structures to the north of the church, including one whose foundations cut a ditch containing 8th-century material. The later 8th-century date for the foundation of the church was confirmed by radiocarbon dates from charcoal extracted from construction mortar in the church fabric.
A complete stone-by-stone survey of the standing fabric, accompanied by petrological
identifications, has led to a refined appraisal of the construction sequence and the identification of‘exotic’ stone types and Roman bricks reused from earlier buildings up to 40 km distant.
The archaeological, geological and laboratory findings presented here have been amplified by contextual studies placing the church against its archaeological, architectural, liturgical and historical background, with detailed comparisons with standing and excavated buildings of similar age in north Europe and Italy.
Pub Date: 31 Dec 2011
Imprint: Council for British Archaeology
Castles, both ruined and occupied, are amongst the most deeply evocative buildings in the Scottish landscape. This book considers the history of the conservation and restoration of a number of those buildings against the background of what the idea of the castle has meant to Scots over the centuries. The authors draw on their extensive knowledge of castles across Scotland, as well as on their practical experience in advising on recent conservation and restoration projects. They begin by briefly considering the history of castles and by exploring their role in Scottish society, before moving on to consider the ways in which they were absorbed within later building complexes as domestic requirements and social aspirations changed. A series of detailed case studies then examines the issues surrounding the conservation and restoration of castles in modern times, which it is hoped will be of value for everyone with an interest in castles, including those who might be considering undertaking work on one.
Pub Date: 27 Dec 2011
Imprint: Sam Fogg
In the 1470s, one of the most innovative artists working in Bruges illuminated a Book of Hours for Jean Carpentin, lord of Gravile and prominent citizen of Normandy. Known as the Master of the Dresden Prayer Book after one of his other masterpieces, this artist and members of his workshop enriched the pages of Carpentin’s manuscript with miniatures, historiated initials and boldly colored borders in which human figures, monsters and monkeys are framed by twisting branches of acanthus.
Pub Date: 01 Dec 2011
Imprint: British School at Rome
Series: Archaeological Monographs of the British School at Rome
The San Vincenzo Project began in 1980 as a collaboration with the Soprintendenza Archaeologica del Molise. Its initial focus was the small frescoed crypt of 'San Lorenzo' (later known as the Crypt Church), which was in urgent need of conservation. Over the following eighteen years, a large multidisciplinary project was undertaken involving archaeologists, historians and art historians. This consisted of major open-area excavations of the early medieval monastery, of which the celebrated crypt proved to be a modest funerary oratory at the northern limits of the site. The project also involved a study of settlement history in the Upper Volturno valley. This book presents the finds of this excavation.
Pub Date: 02 Aug 2011
Imprint: Oxbow Books
St Peter's, Barton-upon-Humber, is a redundant medieval church in the care of English Heritage. As a result of a major programme of research carried out between 1978 and 2007, it is now the most intensively studied parish church in the UK. Excavations between 1978 and 1984 investigated most of the interior of the building, as well as a swathe of churchyard around its exterior. At the same time, a stone-by-stone record and detailed archaeological study of the fabric and furnishings of the church was undertaken, continuing down to 2007. The twin aims of the project were to understand the architectural history and setting of this complex, multi-period building (Volume 1, Parts 1 and 2) and to recover a substantial sample of the population for palaeopathological study (Volume 2). An extensive programme of historical and topographical research also took place in order to set the archaeological evidence firmly in context. The nearby substantial church of St Mary, which was once a chapel dependent on St Peter's, has also been studied, as have the furnishings, fittings and funerary monuments in both buildings. The topography of the small market town and port of Barton has been researched and its Saxon and Norman defensive earthworks have been traced. All aspects of settlement, from the Roman period onwards, have been studied and the vicissitudes of the Christian community in this typical English country town reconstructed through the history, archaeology and architecture of its two magnificent churches.