Ancient History  /  Rome & the Roman Provinces
Recent Discoveries of Tetrarchic Hoards from Roman Britain and their Wider Context Cover
Format: Paperback
Pages: 250
ISBN: 9780861592364
Pub Date: 16 Feb 2024
Imprint: British Museum Press
Series: British Museum Research Publications
This volume was prompted by the recent discovery in Britain of two large coin hoards dating from the first decade of the fourth century AD – Wold Newton and Rauceby. Coins of this early Tetrarchic period are relatively uncommon finds in Britain and elsewhere, due mainly to the brevity of their periods of issue followed by successive reductions in the weight of the coinage. The book also republishes the 1944 Fyfield hoard within the context of these more recent finds and contains preliminary reports on two very large hoards of coins of the same period that have been found in recent years in France (Juillac) and Spain (Tomares).The Tetrarchic system of rule (AD 293−c. 313) was initiated by the Roman Emperor Diocletian to stabilise the Roman Empire, with the rule of the western and eastern Empire being split between two senior emperors and their two junior colleagues. The transition from the third to fourth century AD is a pivotal phase in the history of Roman Britain, with Britain coming once again under the control of the Empire following periods of turbulence and usurper rule between AD 260−296. Under the Tetrarchy, Britain was subjected to the extensive monetary reforms undertaken by Diocletian which saw the introduction of the denomination now referred to as the nummus. The period is of particular interest to numismatists as during this time Roman coinage was minted in Britain at the mint of London. The volume therefore covers not just the hoards themselves, but also considers the wider significance of these hoards for Britain and the early fourth century monetary economy, particularly in the western empire.
Roman Provincial Coinage IV.4 Cover
Format: Hardback
Pages: 828
ISBN: 9780714118314
Pub Date: 15 Dec 2023
Imprint: British Museum Press
Series: Roman Provincial Coinage
This volume provides an authoritative and systematic account of the coins minted for Roman Egypt between AD 138 and 192. It is the first of four volumes, which will cover the provincial coinage of this crucial period of Roman history in its entirety.The coinage in this volume was produced at Alexandria, the commercial and cultural capital of the eastern Mediterranean. It is dated by the year, making it an invaluable guide to imperial presentation and to economic developments during this transitional period. Its iconography is of exceptional interest to scholars and collectors, combining fascinating aspects of Greek, Roman and Egyptian culture.The book gives a complete picture of the material, meeting the needs of numismatists and providing an essential reference for historians, archaeologists and other students of the Roman empire. The introductory chapters and extensive catalogue are accompanied by illustrations of virtually all known types.
Roman Provincial Coinage VII.2 Cover
Format: Hardback
Pages: 1000
ISBN: 9780714118307
Pub Date: 15 Sep 2022
Imprint: British Museum Press
Series: Roman Provincial Coinage
This volume presents for the first time an authoritative and systematic account of the coins minted in the Roman provinces between AD 238 and 244 (except the province of Asia, previously covered in volume VII.1), and shows how these coins can be regarded as an integral part of the coinage minted under the Roman emperors. The book gives a complete picture of the material, thereby not only meeting the needs of numismatists but also providing an essential reference for historians, archaeologists and other students of the Roman empire.The introductory essays and extensive catalogue section are followed by indexes and an illustration of every major issue listed.
Crossing Continents Cover
Format: Paperback
Pages: 160
ISBN: 9781789255546
Pub Date: 15 Apr 2022
Imprint: Oxbow Books
The first contacts between Greece, the Aegean and India are thought to have occurred at the beginning of the sixth century BC. There is now evidence of much earlier indirect connections, starting in the middle of the third millennium BC, but greatly diminishing after 1800 BC. These were initially between India with its Indus Civilisation (Meluḫḫa) and the Near East and then finally with the societies of the Early and Middle Bronze Age Aegean, with their slowly emerging palace-based economies and complex social structures. These connections point to a form of indirect or what might be called ‘trickle-down’ contact between the Aegean and India through objects, iconography and commodities, such as tin and lapis lazuli, that formed this contact.   This  book  views  the  Aegean  as  part  of  a  greater  trade  network,  that  includes commodities as well as more recently discovered objects, which accumulated added value as they fi rst built up a distinguished pedigree of ownership in the Near East and Syro-Palestine. It was the natural extension of trade between the Near East and India. In the Early to Late Bronze Ages, India was an important resource for valuable and indispensable commodities destined for the elites and developing technologies of much of the Old World.   Finally, the period after the end of the Bronze Age to the time of Alexander the Great is examined and particularly after the sixth century, when Greeks were beginning to know about India. Within 200 years, India would be known to scholar and non-scholar alike, including those who witnessed the Persian invasions of Greece or who later became Macedonian and Greek foot soldiers marching east.
Ausonius of Rome Cover
Format: Hardback
Pages: 253
ISBN: 9781463242800
Pub Date: 01 Oct 2021
Imprint: Gorgias Press
Series: Gorgias Studies in Early Christianity and Patristics
The present volume describes the rich and complex world in which Ausonius (c. 310-395) lived and worked, from his humble beginnings as a schoolteacher in Bordeaux, to the heights of his influence as quaestor to the Emperor Gratian, at a time of unsettling social and religious change. As a teacher and poet Ausonius adhered to the traditions of classical paideia, standing in contrast to the Fathers of the Church, e.g., Jerome, Augustine, and Paulinus of Nola, who were emboldened by the legalization, then the imposition, of Christianity in the course of the fourth century. For this position he was labeled by the 20th-century scholar Henri-Irénée Marrou a symbol of decadence. Guided by Marrou’s critical insights to both his own time and place and that of Ausonius, this book proposes a hermeneutic for reading Ausonius as both a fourth-century poet and a fascinating mirror for his 20th-century counterparts.
EAA 175: Crownthorpe Cover
Format: Paperback
Pages: 74
ISBN: 9780905594569
Pub Date: 05 Jul 2021
Imprint: East Anglian Archaeology
Series: East Anglian Archaeology Monograph
The Crownthorpe hoard was discovered in 1982 during a metal detector search of a Roman temple site. It consists of seven bronze vessels: native copies of two Roman silver wine cups and a spouted strainer bowl, together with an imported Roman saucepan, patera and a pair of dishes.   The cups are copies of plain silver vessels of form Eggers 170, and may well have been made in a workshop in Norfolk. They are the only complete examples of insular copies of Roman wine cups from Britain. Copies of Roman wine cups were made in the east of England from before c. 25 BC. Some of these local imitations were inspired by imported cups that have not survived in the archaeological record. Bearing in mind that no imported silver plate is known from late Iron Age Britain after c. 10 BC, insular copies of wine cups show that more silver plate reached Iron Age Britain than we have hitherto realised. Confirmation comes from images of Roman silver cups on Iron Age coins. The spouted strainer bowl was made in a workshop to the south of Crownthorpe, somewhere in the counties north of the lower Thames. Such vessels are an insular type that owed nothing significant to the Roman world. They were used primarily for flavouring local drinks. A corpus of thirty-one such copper-alloy vessels is provided here, including three examples that reached the mainland of Europe.   The Roman saucepan in the hoard is an Eggers 151 saucepan of Trau-Kasserolle type. They are rare finds: Crownthorpe is only the fourth example from Britain, and the only complete one. It came from a workshop along the Rhine or Danube frontiers. The patera is Italian and part of a set of hand-washing vessels; the jug that would have been used in conjunction with it was not present in the hoard. The two dishes have tinned inner surfaces and represent a long-lived Roman vessel type.   The hoard was assembled at Crownthorpe c. AD 40-75. Relating the hoard to the local context suggests that the date can be narrowed down to c. AD 45-60/61. It was buried by a Briton, a member of the local Icenian elite.   The set of vessels at Crownthorpe was used for preparing and serving local ale or mead flavoured with fruit or vegetable additives, and drunk from the cups. Wine amphoras are seldom found in late Iron Age and early Roman Norfolk, and that precludes the use of the Crownthorpe cups for the drink. As there are two cups, we should envisage their use for the host and a guest. The Eggers 151 saucepan was used to ladle the drink into the strainer bowl for its flavouring. Snacks to accompany the drink were served in the two dishes. Hand-washing in the course of these revelries was facilitated by the patera.   Burial of the hoard near the site of a later Romano-Celtic temple with no trace of an organic container to facilitate recovery suggests it was votive. Other base-metal utensil hoards from Roman Britain cannot be satisfactorily accounted for as the temporary concealment of portable wealth with the intention of recovery, and strengthen the case for Crownthorpe being votive. No comparable hoards are known from late Iron Age Britain because few copper-alloy utensils were in use then, but we know that the practice of burying such hoards had its roots in a native tradition because single copper-alloy vessels have been recovered from watery contexts in the late Iron Age.   Components of the Crownthorpe hoard had been dismantled when it was buried, but it should not be seen as a hoard of scrap metal intended for recycling. It is proposed instead that the termination of the useful working life of the hoard vessels represents an act of renunciation, in this case a repudiation of Icenian dealings with the Roman world that culminated in the calamity of the Boudican Revolt of AD 60-61.
Journal of Roman Pottery Studies - Vol 18 Cover
Format: Paperback
Pages: 208
ISBN: 9781789255874
Pub Date: 15 May 2021
Imprint: Oxbow Books
Series: Journal of Roman Pottery Studies
The Journal of Roman Pottery Studies continues to present a range of important new research in the field by both established and early career scholars. Volume XVIII has a strong theme on pottery production with papers on kiln sites, mortaria and late Roman pottery production in East Anglia and at a small town in Belgium. A major new third century assemblage from civitas Cananefatium in South Holland is presented. The second part of an important gazetteer of less common samian ware fabrics and types in northern and western Britain covers fabrics from Central and East Gaul.
Silchester Revealed Cover
Format: Paperback
Pages: 240
ISBN: 9781911188834
Pub Date: 15 Mar 2021
Imprint: Windgather Press
With its apparently complete town plan, revealed by the Society of Antiquaries of London’s great excavation project, 1890-1909, Silchester is one of the best known towns in Roman Britain and the Roman world more widely. Since the 1970s excavations by the author and the University of Reading on several sites including the amphitheatre, the defences, the forum basilica, the public baths, a temple and an extensive area of an entire insula, as well as surveys of the suburbs and immediate hinterland, have radically increased our knowledge of the town and its development over time from its origins to its abandonment. This research has discovered the late Iron Age oppidum and allowed us to characterise the nature of the settlement with its strong Gallic connections and widespread political and trading links across southern Britain, to Gaul and to southern Europe and the Mediterranean. Following a review of the evidence for the impact of the Roman conquest of A.D. 43/44, the settlement’s transformation into a planned Roman city is traced, and its association with the Emperor Nero is explored. With the re-building in masonry of the great forum basilica in the early second century, the city reached the peak of its physical development. Defence building, first in earthwork, then in stone in the later third century are major landmarks of the third century, but the town can be shown to have continued to flourish, certainly up to the early fifth century and the end of the Roman administration of Britain. The enigma of the Silchester ogham stone is explored and the story of the town and its transformation to village is taken up to the fourteenth century. Modern archaeological methods have allowed us to explore a number of themes demonstrating change over time, notably the built and natural environments of the town, the diet, dress, health, leisure activities, living conditions, occupations and ritual behaviour of the inhabitants, and the role of the town as communications centre, economic hub and administrative centre of the tribal ‘county’ of the Atrebates.
Justinian's Indecision Cover
Format: Hardback
Pages: 282
ISBN: 9781463242275
Pub Date: 26 Feb 2021
Imprint: Gorgias Press
Series: Gorgias Studies in Classical and Late Antiquity
Since the time of Eduard Schwartz, scholars have tended to treat ecclesiastical policy under the influence of Justinian as inconsistent and even capricious. This book argues that such an image of Justinian, although seeming to provide a coherent narrative concerning the emperor’s character, falls apart when the details are scrutinized.
Butrint 7 Cover
Format: Hardback
Pages: 224
ISBN: 9781789254334
Pub Date: 15 Nov 2020
Imprint: Oxbow Books
Series: Butrint Archaeological Monographs
This volume brings together unpublished Italian and Albanian archaeological reports and new archaeological studies from recent fieldwork that throw new light on the archaeology and history of the Pavllas River Valley, the Mediterranean alluvial plain in the territory of Butrint, ancient Buthrotum, in southwestern Albania. It gives prominence for the first time to two important sites, Kalivo and Çuka e Aitoit, which are here reinterpreted and shown to have played major roles in the early history of Butrint as it evolved in the later first millennium BC to emerge as the key city of Chaonia in Epirus. Butrint 7 also presents the full excavation report of the Late Bronze Age and Hellenistic fortified site of Mursi, in addition to other Butrint Foundation surveys and excavations in the hinterland of Butrint, including the Roman villa maritima at Diaporit, the villa suburbana on the Vrina Plain, and Roman sites on Alinura Bay and at the Customs House, as well as new surveys of the early modern Triangular Fortress and a survey to locate the lost Venetian village of Zarópulo. The volume also features a new study of the Hellenistic bronze statuette of Pan found on Mount Mile and of his sanctuary at Butrint. The volume concludes with a comprehensive reassessment of the Pavllas River Valley in relation to Butrint, from the Palaeolithic to the modern eras, examining how dominion, territory, environment and the ‘corrupting sea’ reshaped Butrint and its fluvial corridor diachronically and particularly brought profound territorial, economic and social alterations under the Roman Empire.
Empire and Communities Cover
Format: Paperback
Pages: 120
ISBN: 9788869772825
Pub Date: 28 Oct 2020
Imprint: Mimesis International
The reduction of the shares of internal sovereignty, the emergence of transnational or international authorities, the overcoming financial systems’ power, underline the inadequacy of governments based on the obsolete dimension of “nation”.  Hence the lack of power to determine the future of all people, in particular the Communities forgotten or disregarded because considered minorities for the nation. The imperial rule might guarantee in the future the equal people’s dignity, providing that it represents the fusion of earthly and sacred characters with which it was endowed during its splendour in the Middle Age. Even if this design could appear as a utopia, or just thence, Men must pursue it, neither with hope of immediate success, nor fear of failure, sine spe ac metu.    
Kale Akte, the Fair Promontory Cover
Format: Hardback
Pages: 272
ISBN: 9781789252507
Pub Date: 15 Aug 2020
Imprint: Oxbow Books
Series: University of British Columbia Studies in the Ancient World
This volume investigates the interaction between the natural environment, market forces and political entities in an ancient Sicilian town and its surrounding micro-region over the time-span of a thousand years. Focusing on the ancient polis of Kale Akte (Caronia) and the surrounding Nebrodi area on the north coast of Sicily, the book examines the city’s archaeology and history from a broad geographical and cultural viewpoint, suggesting that Kale Akte may have had a greater economic importance for Sicily and the wider Mediterranean world than its size and lowly political status would suggest. Also discussed is the gradual population shift away from the hill-top down to a growing harbour settlement at Caronia Marina, at the foot of the rock.   The book is particularly important for the comprehensive analysis of the 1999–2004 excavations at the latter, with fresh interpretations of the function of the buildings excavated and their chronology, as well for reviewing the present state of our knowledge about Kale Acte/Calacte, and defining research questions for the future. The archaeological material at the heart of this study comes from excavations at the site conducted by the author. It is one of the few detailed publications from Sicily of Hellenistic and Roman amphora material.   The conclusions about changing trends of commercial production and exchange will be of interest to those working on ceramic material elsewhere in Sicily and indeed further afield. The study also offers a fresh perspective of the economic history of ancient Sicily. The origins of Kale Akte and its alleged foundation by the exiled Sikel leader, Ducetius, in the fifth century BC, are also discussed in the light of the latest archaeological discoveries. An Italian summary of each chapter is also included.
Continuity and Rupture in Roman Mediterranean Gaul Cover
Format: Hardback
Pages: 256
ISBN: 9781789255669
Pub Date: 15 Aug 2020
Imprint: Oxbow Books
With the decline in popularity of the term “Romanization” as a way of analyzing the changes in the archaeological record visible throughout the conquered provinces of the Roman Empire, scholars have increasingly turned to the important concept of “identity” to understand the experiences of local peoples living under Roman rule. Studies of identity in the Roman Empire have thus emphasized how local peoples, rather than simply passively copying Roman culture, actively created and recreated complex and multi-faceted identities that incorporated local traditions within the increasingly connected and “globalized” world of the empire. How did the violent nature of Roman rule in the provinces impact local communities and the ways in which individuals interacted with one another? This book provides a detailed study of the ways in which the Celtic-speaking peoples of the ancient settlement of Lattara in Roman Mediterranean Gaul fashioned their lives under two centuries of Roman rule,and in particular the ways in which the creation of these lived experiences wasentangled in the larger processes of Roman colonialism. The important archaeological settlement and port of Lattara (located today in modern Lattes in Mediterranean France), was occupied from ca 500 BCE to 200 CE, and has been the focus of extensive excavations by international teams of archaeologists for over 35 years. The author seeks to understand the ways in which the daily lives of the inhabitants of Lattara were shaped and constrained by the particular historical circumstances of Roman rule, involving the violent conquest of the province between 125-121 BCE, the pacification of numerous revolts in the in the first half of the first century BCE, and the imposition of an oppressive system of taxation, land redistribution, and grain levies.Through a detailed analysis of the large corpus of archaeological evidence dating from ca. 200 BCE to 200 CE at Lattara, the author argues that the violent establishment of Roman rule in Mediterranean Gaul engendered very different forms of social relationships and interactions that structured the community during the late first century BCE and onward. This involved a new organization of domestic space and living arrangements, new relationships structuring the production and exchange of material goods, different relationships between the community and the wider spiritual world, and new strategies for acquiring political influence and power, based upon the increasing importance of material wealth. All of this occurred by the very end of the first century BCE despite the continued persistence of many aspects of local identity, particularly evident in religious practices. Furthermore, these new social relationships were arguably paramount in the daily practices of reproducing Roman rule at Lattara, and in the larger province of Mediterranean Gaul more generally; practices that were in particular rooted in an ever-increasing socio-economic hierarchy.
Illerup Adal 13 Cover
Format: Hardback
Pages: 288
ISBN: 9788788415629
Pub Date: 31 Dec 2019
Imprint: Aarhus University Press
Series: Jutland Archaeological Society Publications
Illerup Ådal Vol. 13 discusses the relationship between the use of weapons in war and the civilian use of bow and arrow for hunting or axes as a tool for daily tasks. Xenia Pauli Jensen writes about bows and arrows, and Lars Christian Nørbach analyses the axes and the production of them. Also includes chapters on the use of wood in weapons.
Butrint 5: Life and Death at a Mediterranean Port Cover
Format: Hardback
Pages: 376
ISBN: 9781785708978
Pub Date: 31 Dec 2019
Imprint: Oxbow Books
Series: Butrint Archaeological Monographs
This is the second volume arising from the 1994–2003 excavations of the Triconch Palace at Butrint (Albania), which charted the history of a major Mediterranean waterfront site from the 2nd to the 15th centuries AD. The sequence (Butrint 3: Excavations at the Triconch Palace: Oxbow, 2011) included the development of a palatial late Roman house, followed by intensive activity between the 5th and 7th centuries involving domestic occupation, metal-working, fishing and burial. The site saw renewed activity from the 10th century, coinciding with the revival of the town of Butrint, and for the following 300 years continued in intermittent use associated with its channel-side location.   This volume reports on the finds from the site (excluding the pottery), which demonstrate the ways in which the lives, diet and material culture of a Mediterranean population changed across the arc of the late Roman and Medieval periods. It includes discussion of the environmental evidence, the human and faunal remains, metal-working evidence, and the major assemblages of glass, coins and small finds, giving an insight into the health, subsistence base and material culture of the population of a Mediterranean site across more than 1000 years. The findings raise important questions regarding the ways in which changes in the circumstances of the town affected the population between Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. They illustrate in particular how an urban Roman centre became more rural during the 6th century with a population that faced major challenges in their health and living conditions.
Butrint 6: Excavations on the Vrina Plain Volume 3 Cover
Format: Hardback
Pages: 336
ISBN: 9781789252217
Pub Date: 31 Oct 2019
Imprint: Oxbow Books
Series: Butrint Archaeological Monographs
Butrint 6 describes the excavations carried out on the Vrina Plain by the Butrint Foundation from 2002–2007. Lying just to the south of the ancient port city of Butrint, these excavations have revealed a 1,300 year long story of a changing community that began in the 1st century AD, one which not only played its part in shaping the city of Butrint but also in how the city interacted and at times reacted to the changing political, economic and cultural situations occurring across the Mediterranean World over this period. Volume III discusses the Roman and Late Antique pottery from the Vrina Plain excavations.   This detailed study of the ceramics follows the archaeological sequence recovered from the excavations in chronological order and provides a comprehensive and in depth review of the pottery, context by context, offering an important insight into the supply, as well as typology, of local and imported pottery available to the inhabitants of the Vrina Plain during this period. This is followed by a discussion on how the pottery trends found on the Vrina Plain relate to that of other sites in Butrint, both within the town (Triconch Palace; the Forum) and outside (Vrina Plain training school villa excavations; the villa of Diaporit).   The volume also presents an overview of some of the principal typological developments found across Butrint so as to allow the reader to place the Vrina finds in context, including a discussion of a number of key contexts from the Forum, as well as the findings from thin-section petrology of some of the ceramics.